EASA Latest Mandate on UPRT
EASA Latest Mandate on UPRT
EASA has mandated that On-Aircraft UPRT will soon be compulsory for airline transport pilots. This has come about as Loss of Control in Flight (LOC-I) continues to be the single largest cause of commercial aircraft accidents and fatalities; critically, in about 80% of these accidents, the aircraft was still flyable. Existing training was viewed as being incomplete by several research groups (LOCART, ICAATEE) and regulatory changes are being implemented for academic, FSTD and on aircraft UPRT.
Academic and FSTD UPRT programmes alone have been shown to be insufficient in enabling new pilots to address the physiological and psychological aspects associated with Flight Upsets resulting from LOC-I. On-Aircraft UPRT is essential to enable pilots to develop the confidence to deal with Startle (and fear), allows the employment of counter-intuitive recovery techniques, builds pilots’ resilience and generates a materially enhanced ability to recover from Upsets. It also ensures that subsequent UPRT in FSTDs is far more meaningful.
In summary, the human factor issues associated with Flight Upsets are easily disregarded but at a potentially huge risk. Ultimate High has briefed many pilots – new and experienced – where knowledge in the briefing room appears perfect, but actions in the real world of practising Flight Upsets has been materially incorrect, and often dangerous. Studies show that many pilots who have not undergone On-Aircraft UPRT will react to a number of Flight Upsets incorrectly, despite having been academically briefed.
The above summarises the view of many (but not all) involved in commercial flight training, and certainly coincides with the opinion of the UPRT specialists here at the Ultimate High Academy. To corroborate this, the extracts below from EASA, IATA and ICAO independently confirm this approach, and the genuine value of On-Aircraft UPRT.
EASA Opinion no 07/2017
"The newly developed advanced UPRT course, which is to be mandated as an addendum at ATP and MPL training courses....is seen as an important step towards enhancing a commercial pilot’s resilience to the psychological and psychological aspects often associated with upset conditions."
EASA NPA 2015-13
"The Agency would like to further explain that ICAO has highlighted that a review of transport category aeroplanes major incidents and accidents show that bank angles have exceeded 90 degrees in some upset events. Furthermore, studies show that most pilots who went into inverted flight for the first time during training incorrectly added back pressure even though they received instructions in academic training and briefings before flight not to increase back pressure. Therefore, the Agency and the RMG believe that mandating this type of training is an important step towards enhancing a commercial pilot’s resilience to the psychological and physiological aspects often associated with upset conditions, and towards providing pilots with an enhanced ability to not only overcome these human factor aspects, but to also apply appropriate recovery strategies to return the aeroplane to safe flight."
IATA Latest Guidance Material and Best Practices for the Implementation of UPRT
"The ideal complete UPRT program will include exposure to flight within the full range of the FAA25/CS25 certification g-envelope, all attitude and essential human factor training. (This should include) adapting to all attitudes, adapting to g exposure (-1g to 2.5g), overcoming surprise and startle, developing counter-intuitive recovery skills, developing AOA awareness, and recovery from all attitude aeroplane upsets. Compared to, and in addition to teaching flying skills in FSTDs, on-aeroplane UPRT should first and foremost be a confidence builder. It serves mainly human-factor training objectives and less flying skills training; therefore, the risk of negative transfer of training from small aeroplanes to large aeroplanes is mitigated.
On-aeroplane exposure to variations from 1g and training of counter-intuitive behaviours is required for the pilot to build resilience and the psycho-physiological skills required to apply control inputs in the event of an upset. On-aeroplane UPRT can be a valuable tool to build long-lasting confidence for the young pilot. This confidence is psychologically built on realistic proof of the student’s ability to control and recover the airplane to normal flight from any ‘3D’ upset situation. The existence of such proof forms the underlying basis of true confidence and is a prerequisite for the ability to contain the effects and duration of startle.
Not simply the flying skills, but the timely employment of effective strategies to prevent such an occurrence or, if unforeseen, during the actual recovery stage of an upset, should be the success-critical elements in the on-aeroplane module. The recovery strategies should include how to manage surprise and startle induced by unusual attitudes and stall, and how to perform even counter-intuitive actions under the presence of deviations from 1g flight."
ICAO Doc 10011 Manual on Aeroplane UPRT
"FSTDs have limitations that render them incapable of providing the complete exposure to conditions synonymous with preventing or recovering from a LOC-I event. Limitations in FSTD motion cuing and the reduced emotional response create boundaries that prevent pilots from experiencing the full range of aeroplane attitudes, load factors and behaviour that can be present during an actual flight. These areas of missing experience provide gaps in pilots’ understanding and proficiency when confronted with an actual upset.
On-aeroplane training...provides physiological and psychological exposure geared toward upset prevention and recovery which creates a frame of reference that can be transferred to the FSTD later in their training. The practice and application of skills acquired during on-aeroplane UPRT provides experience and confidence that cannot be fully acquired in the simulated environment alone.
The practice and application of skills acquired during on-aeroplane UPRT provides experience and confidence that cannot be fully acquired in the simulated environment alone.
Studies show that most pilots who went into inverted flight for the first time during training incorrectly added back pressure even though they received instructions in academic training and briefings before flight not to increase back pressure."